Submitted July 9, 2020
Accepted December 24, 2020
by Paulo Lucinda
Epub 29 Jan, 2021
Marcelo Roberto Souto de Melo,
 Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, 05508-120 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org (corresponding author).
A new species of Characidium is described from the Cerrado biome, in Brasília, Distrito Federal, Central Brazil. The new species can be readily diagnosed by the presence of two or three longitudinal rows of dots along the body sides, absence of bars, by the short pectoral fin, which does not reach the vertical through the dorsal fin origin. Additional useful diagnostic characters are the scaled isthmus, absence of the adipose fin, and the terminal mouth. The new species is only known from the córrego Taquara and its tributaries, a tributary of ribeirão do Gama, upstream from lago Paranoá, in the upper rio Paraná basin. In accordance to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, the new species is categorized as Critically Endangered.
Keywords: Endangered species, IUCN, Lago Paranoá, Reserva Ecológica do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio Paraná basin.