Rocky reef fish biodiversity and conservation in a Brazilian Hope Spot region

Augusto A. Machado1,2, Fernando C. de Moraes2, Aline A. Aguiar2, Mauricio Hostim-Silva1, Luciano N. Santos3,4, and Áthila A. Bertoncini2,4,5

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Abstract​


EN

Coastal islands of Grande Rio, located south Rio de Janeiro and Maricá cities have been under multiple anthropogenic impacts. Despite these problems, these insular systems shelter a high diversity of fish species. Reef fishes are essential components of tropical marine coastal communities, also providing food and income for millions of people around the world. In this work, we generated an updated checklist from Cagarras Islands Natural Monument and surrounding areas based on fisheries data, literature records and multiple sampling techniques, including the Submersible Rotating Video technique, used for the first time in Brazil. We present an inventory of 282 fish species representing 91 different families, with 21 new records for the study area, including a non-native species (Heniochus acuminatus). In addition, our results show a moderate endemism level for the Brazilian province (approximately 6.0%), while 10.5% of species are assigned to one of IUCN’s threatened categories. Our efforts show the fish biodiversity scenario and their distribution on coastal islands more than 10 years after the Cagarras Islands Natural Monument establishment, reinforcing the importance of monitoring research programs for the management of this Marine Protected Area and surrounding waters, that play a key role for artisanal fisheries.

Keywords: Checklist, Marine Protected Areas, Non-destructive techniques, Richness, South Atlantic.

PT

As ilhas costeiras do Grande Rio, ao sul das cidades do Rio de Janeiro e Maricá, têm sofrido múltiplos impactos antrópicos. Apesar destes problemas, esses sistemas insulares abrigam uma grande diversidade de espécies de peixes. Os peixes recifais são componentes essenciais das comunidades costeiras marinhas tropicais, fornecendo alimento e fonte de renda para milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. Neste trabalho, geramos uma lista de verificação atualizada do Monumento Natural das Ilhas Cagarras e áreas do entorno com base em dados de pesca, registros da literatura e múltiplas técnicas de amostragem, incluindo a técnica de vídeo rotacional subaquático usada pela primeira vez no Brasil. Apresentamos um inventário de 282 espécies de peixes representando 91 famílias, com 21 novos registros para área de estudo, incluindo uma espécie não nativa (Heniochus acuminatus). Além disso, nossos resultados mostram um nível de endemismo moderado da província brasileira (aproximadamente 6,0%), sendo 10,5% das espécies classificadas em uma das categorias ameaçadas da IUCN. Nossos esforços mostram o cenário da biodiversidade de peixes e sua distribuição nas ilhas costeiras mais de 10 anos após o estabelecimento do Monumento Natural das Ilhas Cagarras, reforçando a importância de programas de pesquisa de monitoramento para a gestão desta Área Marinha Protegida e suas águas adjacentes, que desempenham papel fundamental para a pesca artesanal.

Palavras-chave: Áreas Marinhas Protegidas, Atlântico Sul, Lista de espécies, Riqueza, Técnicas não-destrutivas.

Introduction​


Rocky reefs are among the most important marine ecosystems in the world, due to their importance in providing livelihood services for millions of people, such as fishing, medicinal compounds, and tourism (Pereira, Soares-Gomes, 2009; Laport et al., 2016; Riofrío-Lazo et al., 2022). Despite all their importance, many forms of life that inhabit rocky shore ecosystems are critically endangered by human actions (Benedetti-Cecchi et al., 2001; Pereira, Soares-Gomes, 2009; Mendez et al., 2019). Coastal development, urbanization and overfishing are amongst the main activities that exert pressure on coastal marine ecosystems (Elliott, 2014; Alves et al., 2019; Figueroa-Pico et al., 2021), currently occurring so fast that they generally surpass our ability to understand the surrounding ecosystem functioning. In order to reduce these impacts caused by human activities, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been created as an important management tool, aiming to provide protection for local marine biodiversity (Lester et al., 2009; Miller, Russ, 2014), especially minimizing impacts on fish assemblages and improving/preserving the essential habitats on which species depend (Gaines et al., 2010; Sciberras et al., 2015).

As reef environments, reef fishes are important components of tropical marine communities, serving as food and income source for millions of people (Munro, 1996; Pauly et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2016). In Brazil, reef fish communities are distributed along the coast, from off the mouth of the Amazon River, and the Manuel Luiz reefs (Northern Brazil) to coastal regions of Santa Catarina State in Southern Brazil (Rocha, Rosa, 2001; Hostim-Silva et al., 2005; Moura et al., 2016), including oceanic islands (Quimbayo et al., 2019; Pinheiro et al., 2020). However, the rocky shore ichthyofauna on coastal regions has been under increasing human pressure, ranging from the degradation by pollution, to extractive activities, such as fishing (recreational and commercial), which can lead some species to high extinction risks (Quaas et al., 2019). Additionally, the introduction/arrival of invasive species can pose a significant threat to local biodiversity, and may cause changes in the structure of communities, resulting in the exclusion of native species (Ruiz et al., 1997; Bax et al., 2003). These facts contribute to the reduction of the environment quality, directly impacting the associated ichthyofauna, which demands a better understanding of the dynamics of the reef fish communities in these regions, especially within MPAs.

Along the Southeastern Brazilian coastline, the complex structure of rocky reefs is associated with a valuable diversity of fish species and other organisms, even overcoming the number of species present on other marine ecosystems (Floeter et al., 2004; Souza et al., 2018). The Grande Rio region shelters our studied islands. They are precisely located from the Guanabara Bay entrance to both sides of the E-W coastline orientation, encompassing Rio de Janeiro and Maricá municipalities, in Southeastern Brazil. These islands and surrounding waters shelter a high biodiversity of marine and terrestrial fauna and flora, and even stand out as a singular archeological site, being commonly visited by tourists, fishermen, military activities, and the general public (details in Moraes et al., 2013; Bertoncini et al., 2019). Part of these islands form an important Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Rio de Janeiro City, The Cagarras Islands Natural Monument (MONA Cagarras). Despite its importance and proximity to a highly populated Brazilian metropolis, the ichthyofauna of these coastal islands and surrounding waters are still poorly known. Nonetheless, MONA Cagarras, together with its surrounding areas (including Rasa and Cotunduba islands) was, in 2021, recognized as a Hope Spot for conservation of marine biodiversity by the international nonprofit organization Mission Blue.

The survey of biodiversity appears as a key tool in studies of fish communities (Mora et al., 2008; Guabiroba et al., 2020; Pereira et al., 2021). Non-destructive techniques have been widely employed in marine ecosystems, especially in MPAs (Andradi-Brown et al., 2016; Bayley et al., 2019; Quaas et al., 2019, Schmid et al., 2020). The Underwater Visual Census (UVC) is frequently used in ecological studies of reef fish communities (Chaves, Monteiro-Neto, 2009; Daros et al., 2018; Motta et al., 2021; Pereira et al., 2021), allowing the identification of species and the monitoring of the behavior of organisms that especially, are not affected by the presence of divers (Sale, 1997; Beck et al., 2014). In parallel, the evolution of non-destructive techniques through remote videos, have been employed as important complementary tools, to carry out more accurate sampling of the ichthyofauna (Mallet, Pelletier, 2014; Koenig, Stallings, 2015; Pimentel et al., 2020; Pinheiro et al., 2020; Rolim et al., 2022). Such instruments allow to estimate the abundance and diversity of reef fishes, providing relevant information on the health of local marine communities, with minimum impacts.

In the present work, we revisited and updated the checklist of fish species from Rio de Janeiro coastal islands and surrounding waters, based on a decade of field surveys, published scientific articles and fisheries records. In addition, we report the first record of the non-native species Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, we provide data of species richness on several coastal islands and surroundings by different sampling methods, improving the knowledge on ­the marine fish species of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Material and methods


Sampling sites. The present study was conducted at the coastal islands of Rio de Janeiro and Maricá cities (between 43º35’W – 42º09’W; 23º01’S – 22º09’S) (Fig. 1): from West to East, Tijucas Archipelago is located 1.7 km off Barra da Tijuca Beach and comprises Pontuda, Alfavaca, and Meio Islands; the Cagarras Archipelago is about 4 km southwards off Ipanema Beach, formed by Palmas, Cagarra, Comprida islands plus Filhote da Cagarra Islet; and along with Redonda Island and Filhote da Redonda Islet, which lie 4 km southwards the Cagarra Archipelago, they form the Cagarras Islands Natural Monument, a no-take MPA created in 2010 to protect the local biodiversity, which boundaries includes the marine area 10 m from the rockyshore of each island. Further East lies Rasa Island, while Cotunduba Island is located at the entrance of Guanabara Bay. Further East, Maricás Archipelago is spread 3.5 km from the Maricá coast and is formed by Maricá and Crioula islands and two small islets.

FIGURE 1 | Maps and photographs of the study area (Coastal Islands of Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region). A. The State of Rio de Janeiro in Southeast Brazil; B. The Guanabara Bay and the archipelagos/islands along the southern coast, Z13 fishermen’s colony (red square) and Z7 fishermen’s colony (red circle); C. Tijucas Archipelago; D. Cagarras Archipelago and Redonda Island and Filhote da Redonda Islet forming the MONA Cagarras MPA; E. Cotunduba Island; F. Rasa Island; G. Maricás Archipelago; H. Aerial view from West of the Tijucas Archipelago; I. Aerial view from Northwest of MONA Cagarras, depicting Rasa Island in the far background; J. Aerial view from Southeast of Cotunduba Island; K. Aerial view from East of the Maricás Archipelago. Credits: Augusto A. Machado (A-G); Áthila A. Bertoncini (H, I, K); Fred Cunha (J).

Data source. The updated checklist of marine fishes presented herein was produced through non-destructive methods: (I) 696 Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC) were carried out using 40m2-belt transects by two scientific divers in all of the three archipelagos and Cotunduba Island, between 2011 and 2022, at shallow waters (<10 m) and deeper waters (>11 to 25 m); (II) 468 Submersible Rotating Videos (SRV) were obtained at three different areas on shallow (<10 m) and deep (>10 m) strata (117 hours of video); Additionally, (III) fish occurrence records were compiled from previously published scientific papers and books (e.g., Rangel et al., 2007; Moraes et al., 2013; Monteiro-Neto et al., 2013; Aguiar et al., 2015; Amorim, Monteiro-Neto, 2016; Garcia et al., 2018; Bertoncini et al., 2019; Araujo et al., 2020; Hauser-Davis et al., 2021); (IV) Data were also compiled from fishery landing monitoring and personal communication with Z13 and Z7 Fishermen Colonies, providing much of the species that inhabit soft bottoms, once they have fishing grounds in the surroundings of the islands. Finally, (V) Underwater Sighting Data (approx. 603 hours of scientific diving) and sightings by colleagues and volunteers in situ were considered in the present work.

Submersible Rotating Videos (SRV). The SRV system (Fig. 2), developed by Koenig, Stallings (2015), is an innovative rotational underwater video technique, and consists of a stainless-steel frame with an engine inside (2 rpm) and a camera of high resolution attached (e.g., GoPro). This technique simulates the renowned stationary census technique, developed by Bohnsack, Bannerot (1986) and excludes the potential influence of the diver on the behavior of fishes. From each deployment, a 15-minute-video was recorded, and then after analyzed using the VLC multimedia player (http://www.videolan.org/vlc/index.html).

FIGURE 2 | Submersible Rotating Videos “SRV” in operation on Redonda Island. Photo: Áthila A. Bertoncini.

Data analysis. The species were identified based on Figueiredo, Menezes (2000), Humann, Deloach (2014), Hostim-Silva et al. (2005), Bertoncini et al. (2019), and consultancy to experts. The families were ordered according to Dornburg, Near (2021) and species were arranged in alphabetic order inside each family. The IUCN Red List of threatened species and the Brazilian environmental agency, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio) – Red list of Brazilian Fauna Threatened of Extinction were addressed to classify the conservation status of each species (ICMBio, 2018; IUCN, 2020). The sites where the species were reported are presented here and the records of species not observed by this study are referenced. Data analyses were performed using Software R (R Development Core Team, 2020) and maps were elaborated through QGIS 3.16 (QGIS Development Team, 2022).

Results​


Fish database. The annotated checklist includes 282 fish species, belonging to 192 genera and 91 families cataloged at the coastal Islands of Rio de Janeiro and surrounding waters, including soft bottom habitats (Tab. 1). It is important to note in Tab. 1 that phylogenetic updates are considered for recent changes in families, i.e., Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) under Galeocerdonidae (Ebert et al., 2021), Zapteryx brevirostris (Müller & Henle, 1841) under Trygonorrhinidae (Last et al., 2016), Acanthistius brasilianus (Cuvier, 1828) under Anthiadidae (Dornburg, Near, 2021; Anderson, 2018); and genus, i.e., from Equetus (lanceolatus) (Linnaeus, 1758) to Eques Bloch, 1793 (Parenti, 2020); and from Chromis (multilineata) (Guichenot, 1853) to Azurina Jordan & McGregor, 1898 (Tang et al., 2021).

TABLE 1 | Fish species observed in Coastal Islands of Rio de Janeiro arranged according to Dornburg, Near (2021). Observed sites: Tijucas Archipelago = TA; Cagarras Islands Natural Monument = MCA; Maricás Archipelago = MA; Rasa Island = RI; Cotunduba Island = CI; Conservation Status (IUCN/ICMBio): CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, NT = Near Threatened, LC = Least Concern, DD = Data Deficient, and NE = Not Evaluated. Record type: SIG = Sighted, LIT = Literature; FIS = Fishery (Fishermen’s colony and spearfishing), MUS = Museum Voucher, SRV= Submersible Rotating Video and UVC = Underwater Visual Census. † New Records for the area. # Exotic species, Ψ Brazilian endemic species; Rangel et al., 2007*¹, Moraes et al., 2013*², Monteiro-Neto et al., 2013*³, Amorim, Monteiro-Neto, 2016*4, Garcia et al., 2018*5, Bertoncini et al., 2019*6, Araujo et al., 2020*7, Hauser-Davis et al., 2021*8.

Family and species

IUCN

ICMBio

Observed sites

Record type

GINGLYMOSTOMATIDAE

 

 

 

 

Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788)

DD

VU

MCA

SIG *²

RHINCODONTIDAE

 

 

 

 

Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828 ?

EN

VU

MCA

SIG

LAMNIDAE

 

 

 

 

Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810

EN

NT

Z7 / Z13

FIS*7

CARCHARHINIDAE

 

 

 

 

Carcharhinus brevipinna (Valenciennes, 1839)

NT

DD

Z7 / Z13

FIS*7

Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron, 1839)

VU

NT

Z7

FIS*7

Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839)

DD

NT

Z13

FIS*7

GALEOCERDONIDAE

 

 

 

 

Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822)

NT

NT

Z13

FIS*7

SPHYRNIDAE

 

 

 

 

Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)

CR

CR

Z7 / Z13

FIS*7

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)

VU

CR

Z7 / Z13

FIS*7

HEXANCHIDAE

 

 

 

 

Notorynchus cepedianus (Péron, 1807) ?

DD

CR

Z13

FIS

SQUATINIDAE

 

 

 

 

Squatina guggenheim Marini, 1936

EN

CR

Z7 & Z13

FIS*6

NARCINIDAE

 

 

 

 

Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831)

DD

DD

TA / Z13

SRV/ FIS*7

RAJIDAE

 

 

 

 

Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan, 1903)

VU

NT

MUS

MUS*³

Atlantoraja castelnaui (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907)

EN

EN

Z7 / Z13

FIS*6

Rioraja agassizii (Müller & Henle, 1841)

VU

EN

MUS / Z13

MUS*³/FIS*7

RHINOBATIDAE

 

 

 

 

Pseudobatos horkelii (Müller & Henle, 1841)

CR

CR

Z7 / Z13

FIS*6

Pseudobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1792)

NT

DD

MCA / Z13

SRV / FIS*7

TRYGONORRHINIDAE

 

 

 

 

Zapteryx brevirostris (Müller & Henle, 1841)

NT

DD

TA / MCA / MA / Z13 / MUS

UVC / MUS*³/FIS*7

DASYATIDAE

 

 

 

 

Dasyatis hypostigma Santos & Carvalho, 2004

DD

DD

Z13

FIS*³

Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928)

DD

DD

MCA / MA / RI / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*7

Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

DD

LC

Z13

FIS*7

Hypanus say (Lesueur, 1817)

LC

DD

Z13

FIS*4

Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)

LC

DD

Z13

FIS*7

GYMNURIDAE

 

 

 

 

Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758)

VU

CR

TA / MCA / MA / Z13

UVC / FIS*³

MYLIOBATIDAE

 

 

 

 

Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790)

NT

DD

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC/ SRV/ LIT*1,3

Myliobatis freminvillei Lesueur, 1824

DD

EN

MCA / RI

UVC/ SRV/ SIG*³

RHINOPTERIDAE

 

 

 

 

Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill, 1815) ?

VU

VU

MCA

UVC

MOBULIDAE

 

 

 

 

Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788)

EN

VU

Z13

FIS*8

ELOPIDAE

 

 

 

 

Elops saurus Linnaeus, 1766

LC

NE

Z13

FIS*2

ALBULIDAE

 

 

 

 

Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758)

NT

DD

Z13

FIS*2

MURAENIDAE

 

 

 

 

Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, 1839

LC

DD

MCA

SIG / LIT*1

Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier, 1829)

LC

DD

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / SIG*1

Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz, 1831

LC

DD

Z13

FIS*2

Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau, 1855)

LC

DD

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SIG*³

Muraena retifera Goode & Bean, 1882

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SIG*³

OPHICHTHIDAE

 

 

 

 

Ahlia egmontis (Jordan, 1884)

LC

LC

MCA / RI

UVC / SIG*³

Myrichthys breviceps (Richardson, 1848)

LC

LC

MCA

UVC / LIT*1

Myrichthys ocellatus (Lesueur, 1825)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / LIT*³

Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

TA / MCA

UVC / LIT*³

CONGRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Conger orbignianus Valenciennes, 1837

LC

DD

MUS

MUS*³

CLUPEIDAE

 

 

 

 

Brevoortia aurea (Spix & Agassiz, 1829)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*²

Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA

SRV / SIG*³

Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818)

LC

LC

MCA / MA / Z13

UVC / FIS*² / SIG*³

Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879)

DD

DD

MCA / Z13

UVC / FIS*2

ARIIDAE

 

 

 

 

Genidens barbus (Lacepède, 1803)

NE

EN

CI3 / Z13 

UVC / FIS*2

SYNODONTIDAE

 

 

 

 

Synodus foetens (Linnaeus, 1766)

LC

LC

MCA

LIT*²,³

Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz, 1829)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

LIT*1/UVC

Synodus synodus (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Trachinocephalus myops (Foster, 1801)

LC

LC

MUS

MUS*³

LAMPRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Lampris guttatus (Brünnich, 1788) ?

LC

LC

Z13

FIS

MERLUCCIIDAE

 

 

 

 

Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933

NE

NT

Z13

FIS*²

GADIDAE

 

 

 

 

Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup, 1858)

NE

NT

Z13

FIS*²

HOLOCENTRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck, 1765)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI / Z13

UVC / SRV / LIT*1/ FIS*²

Myripristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot, 1853)

LC

LC

MCA / MA

UVC / LIT*2

Sargocentron bullisi (Woods, 1955)

LC

LC

MCA / MA

SIG*³/UVC

BATRACHOIDIDAE

 

 

 

 

Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829)

NE

LC

MCA / MA / Z13 / MUS

UVC / LIT*²/ MUS*³ / FIS*²

GOBIIDAE

 

 

 

 

Coryphopterus glaucofraenum Gill, 1863

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / LIT*1

Ctenogobius saepepallens (Gilbert & Randall, 1968) ?

LC

LC

MA

UVC

Elacatinus figaro Sazima, Moura & Rosa, 1997 Ψ

NE

VU

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Gnatholepis thompsoni Jordan, 1904

LC

LC

MCA

UVC / SIG*6

Gobulus myersi Ginsburg, 1939  ?

LC

NE

TA

UVC

APOGONIDAE

 

 

 

 

Apogon pseudomaculatus Longley, 1932

LC

LC

MCA / MA

UVC / LIT*²

Phaeoptyx pigmentaria (Poey, 1860)

LC

LC

Not Available

SIG*³

PTERELEOTRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Ptereleotris randalli Gasparini, Rocha & Floeter, 2001

LC

LC

TA

UVC / SRV / SIG*3

GEMPYLIDAE

 

 

 

 

Thyrsites lepidopodea (Cuvier, 1832)

NE

LC

Z13

FIS*2

POMATOMIDAE

 

 

 

 

Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766)

VU

NT

MCA / Z13

SRV / FIS*2

SCOMBRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810)

LC

LC

MCA / MA

UVC / LIT*6

Sarda sarda (Bloch, 1793) ?

LC

LC

MCA

SIG

Scomber colias Gmelin, 1789

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*4

Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

SIG / FIS*4

STROMATEIDAE

 

 

 

 

Peprilus paru (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

TRICHIURIDAE

 

 

 

 

Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758

DD

LC

MCA / Z13

SIG*2/ FIS*2

FISTULARIIDAE

 

 

 

 

Fistularia petimba Lacepède, 1803

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

SIG  / FIS*2

Fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus, 1758

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / SIG*1

SYNGNATHIDAE

 

 

 

 

Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns, 1842) ?

LC

LC

RI

UVC

Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

VU

VU

Not Available

LIT*³

Hippocampus patagonicus Piacentino & Luzzatto, 2004 ?

VU

VU

MCA

SIG

Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933

NT

VU

TA / MCA / MA

UVC / SIG*1

CALLIONYMIDAE

 

 

 

 

Callionymus bairdi Jordan, 1888

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA

UVC / SIG*³

MULLIDAE

 

 

 

 

Mullus argentinae Hubbs & Marini, 1933

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier, 1829) ?

LC

LC

MCA / MA

UVC

Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch, 1793)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI / Z13

UVC/SRV/ SIG*1 /FIS*2

DACTYLOPTERIDAE

 

 

 

 

Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / CI / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*2

BLENNIIDAE

 

 

 

 

Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / LIT*1

Hypsoblennius invemar Smith-Vaniz & Acero P., 1980

LC

LC

TA / MCA / RI

UVC / LIT*1

Parablennius marmoreus (Poey, 1876)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / LIT*1

Parablennius pilicornis (Cuvier, 1829)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Scartella cristata (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

CHAENOPSIDAE

 

 

 

 

Emblemariopsis signifer (Ginsburg, 1942)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / LIT*1

LABRISOMIDAE

 

 

 

 

Gobioclinus kalisherae (Jordan, 1904)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / RI

UVC / SIG*³

Labrisomus cricota Sazima, Gasparini & Moura, 2002

LC

LC

Not Available

LIT*1

Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Malacoctenus triangulatus Springer, 1959

LC

LC

Not Available

LIT*1

Malacoctenus delalandii (Valenciennes, 1836)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / LIT*1

Paraclinus spectator Guimarães & Bacellar, 2002 Ψ

LC

LC

TA / MCA

UVC / SIG*6

Starksia brasiliensis (Gilbert, 1900) Ψ

LC

LC

TA

SIG / LIT*³

BELONIDAE

 

 

 

 

Strongylura spp. van Hasselt, 1824

LC

LC

Not Available

LIT*1

Strongylura marina (Walbaum, 1792)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*³

Tylosurus spp.

LC

LC

RI

UVC / SIG*³

Tylosurus acus (Lacepède, 1803)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

MUGILIDAE

 

 

 

 

Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836

LC

DD

MCA / Z13

SIG*² / FIS*2

Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836

DD

NT

TA / MCA / MA / CI / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*2

OPISTOGNATHIDAE

 

 

 

 

Opistognathus vicinus Smith-Vaniz, Tornabene & Macieira, 2018 ? ?Ψ

NE

NE

RI / MA

UVC

POMACENTRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI / Z13

UVC / SRV /LIT*1/ FIS*²

Azurina multilineata (Guichenot, 1853)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Chromis flavicauda (Günther, 1880)

DD

LC

MCA

UVC / LIT*²

Chromis jubauna Moura, 1995 Ψ

NE

LC

MCA / RI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Chromis vanbebberae McFarland, Baldwin, Robertson, Rocha & Tornabene, 2020 ?

NE

NE

MCA

UVC

Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier, 1830)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Stegastes pictus (Castelnau, 1855)

NE

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

Stegastes variabilis (Castelnau, 1855)

NE

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / LIT*1

CARANGIDAE

 

 

 

 

Caranx crysos (Mitchill, 1815)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*³

Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766)

LC

LC

Not Available

SIG*³ / FIS*³

Caranx latus Agassiz, 1831

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / LIT*2

Caranx ruber (Bloch, 1793)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / FIS*³

Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus, 1766)

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

SIG / FIS*2

Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier, 1833) ?

LC

LC

TA / CI

UVC

Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier, 1829) ?

LC

LC

MCA

UVC

Oligoplites spp.

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

Parona signata (Jenyns, 1841)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / SRV / FIS*³

Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793)

LC

LC

MCA

SIG / FIS*³

Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815)

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

SIG / FIS*2

Selene vomer (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

SRV / FIS*2

Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810)

NT

LC

MCA / Z13

SIG*2/ FIS*³

Seriola lalandi Valenciennes, 1833

LC

LC

TA / MCA / Z13

UVC / SIG*2 / FIS*2

Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes, 1833

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI

UVC / FIS*³

Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

CI3 / Z13

SIG / FIS*³

Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann, 1896

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

SRV / FIS*2

Trachinotus marginatus Cuvier, 1832

LC

LC

MCA

SIG*2 / FIS*³

Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920

LC

LC

MCA / RI / Z13

UVC / FIS*2

Uraspis secunda (Poey, 1860)

LC

LC

MCA / Z13

UVC / FIS*2

CORYPHAENIDAE

 

 

 

 

Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758

LC

LC

TA / MCA

UVC / FIS*2

ECHENEIDAE

 

 

 

 

Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus 1758

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*2

RACHYCENTRIDAE

 

 

 

 

Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766) ?

LC

LC

CI

SRV

XIPHIIDAE

 

 

 

 

Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 ?

LC

NT

TA

FIS

BOTHIDAE

 

 

 

 

Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / MA / RI / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*2

PARALICHTHYIDAE

 

 

 

 

Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean, 1885)

LC

LC

MCA

SIG

Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839)

DD

DD

Z13

FIS*2

Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan, 1889

VU

NT

Z13

FIS*2

Syacium micrurum Ranzani, 1842

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*4

Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

 / Z13

SIG / FIS*2

CENTROPOMIDAE

 

 

 

 

Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 ?

LC

LC

TA

SRV

Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792)

LC

LC

TA / MCA / CI / Z13

SRV / SIG*³ / FIS*4

POLYNEMIDAE

 

 

 

 

Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

Z13

FIS*2

SPHYRAENIDAE

 

 

 

 

Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier, 1829

LC

LC

Not Available

FIS*³

Sphyraena tome Fowler, 1903

NE

DD

TA / MCA / MA / CI

UVC / SRV / SIG*2

EPINEPHELIDAE

 

 

 

 

Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus, 1758)

LC

LC

MCA

SIG*³

Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes, 1828)

LC

NE

MCA

SIG*5/ MUS*5

Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822)

VU

CR

MCA

SIG*2

Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)

VU

VU

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI / Z13

UVC / SIG*1/ FIS*2

Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)

VU

VU

MCA

SIG / FIS*3

Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes, 1828)

VU

VU

TA / MCA / MA / RI / Z13

UVC / SIG*1 / FIS*2

Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes, 1828)

LC

DD

TA / MCA / MA / RI / CI / Z13

SRV / UVC / SIG*1 / FIS*2

Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860)

NT

VU

TA / MCA / MA / Z13

UVC / SRV / FIS*2

Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey, 1860)

VU

VU

MCA

SRV / SIG*1/ FIS*2

Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean, 1879)

VU

DD

Z13

FIS*2

Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes, 1828)

LC

NE

TA / RI

UVC / SIG*1

SERRANIDAE

 

 

 

 

Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus, 1766)

LC

LC

MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / SIG*2

Diplectrum radiale (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)

LC

LC

MCA / MA / RI / CI

UVC / SRV / SIG*3

Dules auriga Cuvier, 1829